SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Essays on the Governance of AI
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Noam Kolt is a Vanier Scholar at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law and an incoming Assistant Professor at the Hebrew University Faculty of Law and School of Computer Science and Engineering.

Noam’s research focuses on the regulation of AI, automation in the legal system, and broader questions of institutional design and governance. His scholarship is informed by a range of perspectives and skills, including experience as a research advisor to Google DeepMind and as a member of OpenAI’s GPT-4 red team. Previously, Noam practiced international law and corporate law, and held fellowships at the University of Toronto’s Centre for Ethics and Schwartz Reisman Institute for Technology and Society.

Noam’s scholarship has been published or is forthcoming in the Washington University Law Review, Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Yale Law & Policy Review, International Journal of Constitutional Law, and other peer-reviewed venues, including NeurIPS, ACM FAccT, and Science.

SJD, University of Toronto (expected 2024)
GDLP, Australian National University (2017)
BA, LLB (Hons), Monash University (2016)
Awards and Distinctions
Vanier Graduate Scholarship, Government of Canada
Inaugural Graduate Fellowship, Schwartz Reisman Institute for Technology and Society
Ethics of AI Graduate Research Fellowship, University of Toronto Centre for Ethics
Monash Law Alumni Excellence Prize
Editorial Board Member, Monash University Law Review
Professional Affiliations
Institute for Law & AI
Society for Empirical Legal Studies
International Association for Artificial Intelligence and Law
Israel Bar Association
Australian Lawyer, Supreme Court of Victoria
Selected Publications


Algorithmic Black Swans, 101 Washington University Law Review 1177 (2024)

Predicting Consumer Contracts, 37 Berkeley Technology Law Journal 71 (2022)

Populist Rhetoric, False Mirroring, and the Courts, 18 International Journal of Constitutional Law 746 (2020) (with Alon Harel)

Return on Data: Personalizing Consumer Guidance in Data Exchanges, 38 Yale Law & Policy Review 77 (2019)

Cosmopolitan Originalism: Revisiting the Role of International Law in Constitutional Interpretation, 41 Melbourne University Law Review 182 (2017)

Computer Science

Regulating Advanced Artificial Agents (equal lead author, with Michael Cohen, Yoshua Bengio, Gillian Hadfield, and Stuart Russell) Science (2024)

Black-Box Access is Insufficient for Rigorous AI Audits (with Stephen Casper and others) ACM FAccT (2024)

Visibility into AI Agents (with Alan Chan and others) ACM FAccT (2024) 

LegalBench: A Collaboratively Built Benchmark for Measuring Legal Reasoning in Large Language Models (with Neel Guha and others) NeurIPS (2023)


Governing AI Agents - SSRN (2024) - feedback welcome!

Responsible Reporting for Frontier AI Development (lead author) arXiv (2024)

Frontier AI Regulation: Managing Emerging Risks to Public Safety (with Markus Anderljung and others) arXiv (2023)

Model Evaluation for Extreme Risks (with Toby Shevlane and others) arXiv (2023)

Committee Members