Flyer with Table of Contents.     Printed book, 228-pages, online here.  

Legal Grounds III, Online edition, with updates and links to decisions:

Cover and preliminaries
Table of Contents
Table of Cases (2008-2016) by Country
Foreword,  by Charles G. Ngwena 

Chapter One: Introduction  

Chapter Two: Children and Adolescents

Child, Forced and Early Marriage

Female Genital Mutilation

Sexual Abuse, Assault and Violence

Consensual Sexual Conduct

Student Pregnancy

Chapter Three: Maternal Health Care and Services

Chapter Four: Abortion and Fetal Interests


Wrongful Birth or Life

Chapter Five: Adoption and Surrogacy



Chapter Six: Gender, Sexuality, Women and Discrimination


  • S v Chirembwe [2015] ZWHHC 162, CRB No. R 1006/12 (High Court of Zimbabwe at Harare)  [Sentence length for multiple rapes]  Decision online

Disability, Sexuality and Criminal Law

Sexual Harassment

  • *Rita M Mbatha v Farai B Zizhou & Anor, [2021] HH675-21,  HC 4986/14.   (High Court of Zimbabwe at Harare), 20 October 2021 Decision online.  Awarded damages for sexual harassment at work.

Women and Criminal Law

Gender Identity, Intersexuality, Transgender Rights

Sexual Orientation

  • Oloka-Onyango and 9 Others v Attorney General [2014], Constitutional Petition No. 8 of 2014, 
    UGCC 14 (1 August 2014) (Constitutional Court of Uganda at Kampala). [Anti-Homosexuality Act annulled due to lack of parliamentary quorum.]  Decision online.
  • C.O.L. & G.M.N. v. Resident Magistrate Kwale Court & Others Petition No. 51 of 2015 (High Court of Kenya, Constitutional and Judicial Review Division). [Court allowed medical examinations including anal exams to prove crime of homosexuality]  Decision on file.
  • *Teriah Joseph Ebah v. Federal Government of Nigeria, Suit No. FHC/ABJ/CS/197/2014.  Decision of October 22, 2014 (Federal High Court of Nigeria at Abuja) [Court evaded legalizing homosexuality on constitutional grounds by denying legal standing to the applicant. ]  Decision onlineCase comment by Ovye Affi.**
  • *["Eric Gitari 2"] EG & 7 others v Attorney General; DKM & 9 others Petition 150 & 234 of 2016 (consolidated), (High Court of Kenya at Nairobi, Constitutional and Human Rights Division).  Decision of May 24, 2019 [homosexuality not legalized]  Decision online.
  • *Letsweletse Motshidiemang v Attorney General [2019] MAHGB-000591-16, Decision of June 11, 2019. (Botswana, High Court)  Decision onlineArticle by Prof. Frans ViljoenCase comment by Kutlwano Pearl Magashula**  [gay sex decriminalized]
  • *Attorney General v. Letsweletse Motshidiemang & LEGABIBO (Amicus Curiae)[2021] CACBB-157-19, Decision of November 29, 2021. (Botswana, Court of Appeal)  Decision online. Article by Carmel Rickard.[Decriminalization of gay sex confirmed on appeal.]

Recognition of LGBTIQ Advocacy and Groups

Chapter Seven: HIV

Access to Treatment

Stigma, and Criminalisation of Transmission

Forced Sterilization

Discrimination in Employment

Chapter Eight: Francophone Africa  /  L’Afrique Francophone

  • [Adultery /   L’adultère] Décision  DCC 09-081 Decision DCC 09-081 of 30 July 2009 of the Constitutional Court of Benin  (adultery law unconstitutional).  Decision in French on file.   Decision en ligne.
  • [Polygamy / La polygamie]  Décision DCC 02-144  of 23 December 2002 of the Constitutional Court of Benin (polygamy law unconstitutional)  Decision in French on file.  Decision en ligne.
  • [InfanticideL’infanticide] Judgment No 216 of 13 December 2005 the Court of Appeal Niamey , Niger (distinction between abortion and infanticide)  Decision on file, in French.

Online Legal Resources

Full Citation Information and Case Links

*Updates, not in Legal Grounds III, are marked with one asterisk.

** We thank Prof. Ebenezer Durojaye for facilitating this case comment, and others by African law students, marked with two asterisks.