Markus Dubber
Professor, Faculty of Law & Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies

Faculty of Law
78 Queen's Park
Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C5

Tel.: 416-946-5455

Markus D. Dubber, B.A. (Harvard), J.D. (Stanford), is Professor, Faculty of Law & Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies.

Much of Markus's scholarship has focused on theoretical, comparative, and historical aspects of criminal law. He has published, as author or editor, over twenty books and eighty papers; his work has appeared in English and German, and has been translated into Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Italian, Korean, Persian, Portuguese, and Spanish, and cited across various disciplines in several other languages, including Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Dutch, Flemish, French, Georgian, Hebrew, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovenian, Swedish, Thai, Turkish, and Ukrainian (ssrn | Google Scholar). His books include, among others, El Estado Penal Dual (2024); Der doppelte Strafstaat (2022); The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of AI (with Frank Pasquale & Sunit Das) (2020); The Dual Penal State: The Crisis of Criminal Law in Comparative-Historical Perspective (2018); The Oxford Handbook of Legal History (with Christopher Tomlins) (2018); The Oxford Handbook of European Legal History (with Heikki Pihlajamäki & Mark Godfrey) (2018); Criminal Law: A Comparative Approach (with Tatjana Hörnle) (2014); The Oxford Handbook of Criminal Law (with Tatjana Hörnle) (2014); Foundational Texts in Modern Criminal Law (2014); The Sense of Justice: Empathy in Law and Punishment (2006) (available open access through Open Square @ NYU Press); The New Police Science: The Police Power in Domestic and International Governance (with Mariana Valverde) (2006); The Police Power: Patriarchy and the Foundations of American Government (2005); and Victims in the War on Crime (2002) (available open access through Open Square @ NYU Press). Journals in which his work has appeared include, among others, Stanford Law Review, Columbia Law Review, Michigan Law Review, Law & History Review, American Journal of Comparative Law, Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Zeitschrift für die gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft, Kritische Vierteljahresschrift für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft, Leiden Journal of International Law, and Journal of International Criminal Justice. Markus is a member of the Drafting Committee for The 8 March Principles for a Human Rights-Based Approach to Criminal Law, published in 2023 by the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) in collaboration with OHCHR, UNAIDS, WHO, and UNDP. He was elected to the American Law Institute in 2002 and received the Konrad Adenauer Research Prize of the Alexander-von-Humboldt Foundation and the Royal Society of Canada in 2014.

From 2016-2022, Markus served as director of the University of Toronto's interdisciplinary Centre for Ethics, where he launched the Ethics of AI Lab, the Race, Ethics + Power Project, and the multimedia C4eJournal. Previously, Markus established and led the Buffalo Criminal Law Center at SUNY Buffalo, including the Criminal Law LL.M. Program, the Herbert Wechsler National Criminal Moot Court Competition, and the Buffalo Criminal Law Review (now New Criminal Law Review). He is also founding editor-in-chief of Ethics in Context (Oxford), Oxford Handbooks Online (Law), Critical Perspectives on Law and Crime (Stanford), and the online open-access journal Critical Analysis of Law (with Simon Stern).

In 2023, he launched Modern Criminal Law Review, a global multimedia criminal law platform with editorial team members from over fifteen countries.

Other career highlights include appearing on Penelope von Schnitzel's show What in the World Do You Do?, getting name-checked by Jill Lepore in the New Yorker, and hosting an academic event that featured a choir, a Poet Laureate, a printmaker, and items from the University of Toronto's Leonard Cohen collection.

➤ International visitors: Over the years, I've served as academic host for junior and senior researchers in my areas of interest from various countries (including Australia, Austria, China, Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Poland, Singapore, Switzerland, UK, and US), who are provided with access to university resources during their research visit (library access and, if available, work space); financial support is not available. Send inquiries to


Projects & Resources

Criminal Law & Human Rights
     The 8 March Principles for a Human Rights-Based Approach to Criminal Law
Ethics of AI in Context

     Oxford Handbook of Ethics of AI: Online Companion

     CAL Lab: Critical Analysis of Law @ UofT
     CAL: An International & Interdisciplinary Law Review
CAL for Students: A Tool Kit & Read-in Group
CAL Flix: Student View-ins
Criminal Law
     Criminal Law: A Comparative Approach
     Foundational Texts in Modern Criminal Law [companion website]
     An Introduction to the Model Penal Code
     Oxford Handbook of Criminal Law
     Criminal Law Web
     Criminal Law @ UofT
     Criminal Law LLM Program
     Criminal Law Sciences Club
     The Dual Penal State (PiPP) []
     Law @ UofT: Law as a Great University Subject 
     Infinite Summer @ UofT Law

Course Materials

Criminal Law
Administrative Law
     Points of Power
Critical Perspectives on Law
Legal Process
     Annotated Outline & Syllabus