UofT Law faculty authors: 

Anthony J. Casey and Anthony Niblett. "Self-driving laws." UTLJ 66(4), pp. 429–442.


Machines refine and improve products. Artificially intelligent machines will soon have the same effect on the law. Future developments in artificial intelligence and machine learning will dramatically reduce the costs currently associated with rules and standards. Extending this insight, we predict a world of precisely tailored laws (‘micro-directives’) that specify exactly what is permissible in every unique situation. These micro-directives will be largely automated. If the state of the world changes, or if the objective of the law is changed, the law will instantly update. The law will become ‘self-driving.’ The evolutionary path towards self-driving laws will be piecemeal and incremental. At first, machine-driven algorithms will merely be used to guide humans, but, over time, law will increasingly reflect principles and prescriptions developed by machines. We explore three extensions. First, we examine the possibility that the technology is not merely used to provide information about the state of the law but is also used as means of command by the state. Second, we ask how these technological changes will affect contracting behaviour. Third, we examine the effect of micro-directives on social norms.

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