Sarah Mason-Case

SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Commoning the International: Nature and the Making of International Climate Change Law
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Sarah is a Trudeau Foundation doctoral scholar at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law and a Fulbright visitor at Harvard Law School's Institute for Global Law and Policy. She previously visited Melbourne Law School. In winter 2021, she is teaching Critical Race Theory and the Law at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law. 

Sarah's thesis traces international law relating to climate change to the end of the Cold War when Third World lawyers and statesmen sought to address the novel problem by matching a representation of the natural world (as a global commons) with their aspirations to found a new international order that might achieve racial, political, cultural and economic justice. She explores the intricate ways in which law developed, focusing on its promise of progress and its reproduction of power disparities.

Sarah is an Assistant Editor at the Journal of Human Rights and the Environment. She was previously a Special Advisor to the UN Independent Expert on Human Rights and International Solidarity. She taught as an adjunct professor at Osgoode Hall Law School from 2014-2019. 

Her recent publications include 'Thoughts of Liberation' in Canadian Art (with Nataleah Hunter-Young), which puts 10 Black women poets, scholars, artists and activists in conversation. Her chapter, 'Redressing Historical Responsibility for the Precarities of Climate Change in the Present' (with Julia Dehm) undertakes an immanent critique of international law to argue that climate change is tied to broader histories of dispossession and, as such, full repair for this problem demands radical change through 'reparations' for states in the Global South, people living in poverty, and Black, Indigenous and other marginalized peoples in settler colonial states. Another recent paper, 'On Being Companions and Strangers: Lawyers and the Production of International Climate Law', was published in the Leiden Journal of International Law.

For the future, Sarah is aiming to develop research connected to history, justice, legal theories, race, reparations, the natural world, law reform, art, and international and domestic law. 

Doctor of Juridical Science, University of Toronto Faculty of Law (expected 2021)
Master of Laws, McGill University Faculty of Law and School of Environment
Juris Doctor, Osgoode Hall Law School
Bachelor of Arts (Philosophy, Art History, World Religions), McGill University and Université Paris-Sorbonne
Awards and Distinctions
Fulbright Award
Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation Scholarship
New Voices Scholar, American Society for International Law
Transnational Environmental Law Scholarship Prize, Cambridge University Press
Scholars Workshop, Institute for Global Law and Policy, Harvard Law School
JA Bombardier Doctoral Award, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
Doctoral Fellowship, University of Toronto Faculty of Law
Professional Affiliations
Adjunct Professor, University of Toronto Faculty of Law
Truth and Reconciliation Committee, University of Toronto Faculty of Law
Assistant Editor, Journal of Human Rights and the Environment
Visiting Researcher, Harvard Law School, Institute for Global Law and Policy
Special Advisor, UN Independent Expert on Human Rights and International Solidarity (2019-2020)
Visiting Academic, Melbourne Law School (2019)
Adjunct Professor, Osgoode Hall Law School (2014-2019)
Counsel, Law Commission of Ontario (2013-2016)
Project Officer, International Development Law Organization, Rome (2011-2013)
Equity Advisory Group, Law Society of Ontario (2009-2011)
Board of Governors, Canadian Association of Black Lawyers (2009-2011)
Associate Lawyer, Koskie Minsky (2008-2010)
Judicial Law Clerk, Ontario Superior Court of Justice (2007-2008)
Research Interests
Aboriginal Law
Administrative Law
Critical Legal Theory
Environmental Law
Equality and Anti-Discrimination Law
Indigenous Legal Traditions
International Law
Legal Ethics
Legal History
Legal Theory
Committee Members
Steven Bernstein, Associate Chair and Graduate Director Department of Political Science

Christopher Campbell-Duruflé

Christopher Campbell-Duruflé
SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Climate Norms in Practice: A State Accountability Analysis of the Paris Agreement
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Christopher Campbell-Duruflé is a doctoral candidate at the University of Toronto under the supervision of Professor Jutta Brunnée. His research interests include international climate law, international human rights law, the Inter-American system of human rights, Indigenous law, and sustainable development law and policy. 

Christopher's dissertation develops a theoretical framework of state accountability for international norms, and applies it to the implementation mechanisms negotiated in the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. He was officially accredited observer to the COP 21 United Nations climate negotiations on behalf of the University of Toronto and of the Center for International Sustainable Development Law, and has supported the delegation of Burkina Faso since COP 22. 

In 2013-2014, Christopher was fellow at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, in Washington, D.C., and in charge of the Registrar's criminal due process of law portfolio. He also participated in the hearings of the case of Nadège Dorzema et al. v. Dominican Republic before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights as lawyer for the International Clinic for the Defense of Human Rights based at Université du Québec à Montréal and interned with the Geneva office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Christopher has worked for Lawyers Without Borders Canada in Honduras, Jamaica, Guatemala and Colombia, where he founded “Caminos de compromiso” (Engaged Destinies). This web platform presents life story interviews with Colombian human rights defenders to honour their courage. His own story was included in the Human Rights Defenders Exhibit at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg. 

Portrait Photo Credit: Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation

LL.M. (summa cum laude), University of Notre Dame, 2014
B.C.L./LL.B., McGill University, 2009
Awards and Distinctions
Ontario Graduate Scholarship, 2020
Trudeau Scholar 2016, Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation
Joseph-Armand Bombardier Canada Graduate Scholarship, 2016
Doctoral Scholarship, Center for International Governance Innovation, 2015
Nathan Strauss Q.C. Graduate Fellowship in Intl. Law, University of Toronto, 2014
Global Justice Fellow, Munk School of Global Affairs, 2014
Junior Fellow, Massey College, 2014
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Fellowship, 2013
Professional Affiliations
Member, Legal Committee, Centre québécois de droit de l’environnement
Associate Fellow, Center for International Sustainable Development Law
Member, Lawyers Without Borders Canada
Lawyer, Quebec Bar, 2010
Other information
  • Technical Working Group Member, Initiative for Climate Action Transparency
  • Expert Reviewer, Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5C, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Selected Publications

Journal Articles

  • Enhancing Climate Adaptation through the Paris Agreement Market Approaches: Opportunities for COP 25 and Beyond, (2019) 13(3) Carbon & Climate Law Review 183.
  • Clouds or Sunshine in Katowice? Transparency in the Paris Agreement Rulebook” (2018) 12(3) Carbon & Climate Law Review 209.
  • The Inter-American Court’s Environment and Human Rights Advisory Opinion: Implications for International Climate Law (2018) 8 Climate Law 321 (with Sumudu Anopama Atapattu).
  • Accountability or Accounting? Elaboration of the Paris Agreement’s Implementation and Compliance Committee at COP 23 (2018) 8 Climate Law 1-38.
  • Sustainable Development, International Criminal Justice, and Treaty Implementation (Book Review) (2013) 26.2 Revue québécoise de droit international 261.
  • Introduction to the Special Volume on the Case of the Guayubín Massacre, with Bernard Duhaime, Revue québécoise de droit international, Special Edition co-directed with Professor Bernard Duhaime, November 2013.
  • The Right to Juridical Personality of Arbitrarily Detained and Unidentified Migrants After the Case of the Guayubín Massacre, Revue québécoise de droit international, Special Edition, November 2013.
  • La nécessité de prendre en compte les chevauchements des droits autochtones dans la conclusion de traités au Canada [The Need to Consider Aboriginal Rights Overlap During Treaty-Making in Canada] (2012) 71 Revue du Barreau du Québec 1. 
  • Le Canada et la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones : Valeur et pertinence, [Canada and the UNDRIP : Content and Relevance], with Gentelet K. and Farget D. (2010) 23(1) Nouvelles pratiques sociales 130.
  • Only if “je est un autre” Can I Recognise You: Reflections on Canada’s Process of Constitutional Recognition of the “Pre-existence of Distinctive Aboriginal Societies” (2010) 14(3) Lex Electronica 1.
  • El derecho indígena a la propiedad como ocasión de reafirmar la indivisibilidad de los derechos humanos [The Aboriginal Right to Property, an Occasion to Reaffirm Human Rights Indivisibility] (2009) 5 Revista CEJIL 65. 


  • The Significant Transboundary Harm Prevention Rule and Climate Change: One-Size-Fits-All or One Size Fits None?, in Benoît Mayer & Alexander Zahar, eds, Debating Climate Law, Cambridge University Press. (forthcoming)
  • All On the Same Train: Bringing the Paris Agreement Home, in Catriona Sandilands, ed, Rising Tides: Reflections for Climate Changing Times, Caitlin Press, Halfmoon Bay, 2019.
  • L’approche interactionnelle du droit international, in Stéphane Bernatchez & Louise Lalonde, eds, Approches et fondements du droit, Éditions Yvon Blais, Cowansville, 2019. (with Hélène Mayrand)

Briefs and Working Papers

  • Sustainable Development Methodology: Assessing the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Policies and Actions, D. Rich, R. Song & K.H. Olsen, eds, Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute; Copenhagen: UNEP DTU Partnership, 2020. (Drafting team member)
  • Sustainable Development Guidance - Guidance for Assessing the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Policies and Actions, Initiative for Climate Action Transparency, 2018. (Contributing author)
  • Commitments by Developing Country Parties under the Paris Agreement, Legal Response Initiative, Briefing Paper 2/2016. (with Pascale Bird) 
  • Towards a New Climate Agreement – Principles and Practices for Implementation from a Sustainable Development Perspective, Center for International Sustainable Development Law, 2015. (Contributing author)
  • Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and Climate Change: A Legal Reference Guide, edited by Sébastien Jodoin & Katherine Lofts, New Haven, Ct.: GEM, CISDL, and ASAP, 2013. (Contributing author)
Research Interests
Aboriginal Law
Environmental Law
International Law
Legal Theory
Committee Members
Steven Bernstein, Department of Political Science
Stephen J. Toope (2015-2017)

Senator Murray Sinclair's Call for Senatorial and Legal Restraint Should Inspire All of Us

The deluge of op-eds, blogs, commentaries, media interviews and news reports about Bill C-14 on Medical Assistance in Dying has created a level of over-saturation. More careful, reflective statements are increasingly hard to find. What now dominates the debate are bold statements about the constitutionality of the Bill—University of Ottawa’s Amir Attaran apparently even inventing a new constitutional qualifier of ‘unconstitutional by the bucketfull’--and reports of difficult and emotional end-of-life situations, which Bill C-14 may indeed not necessarily solve. It is therefore perhaps no surprise that the eloquent, respectful and wise intervention in the Senate by the Honourable Murray Sinclair, former judge and former Chair of the Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission, did not receive much attention in the media.

Alumna Margaret Froh first woman elected president of Métis Nation of Ontario

Wednesday, May 25, 2016
Headshot of Margaret Froh

In a record voter turnout this year, Margaret Froh, Class of 1996, was elected the president of the Métis Nation of Ontario, the first woman to be elected to the position.

A lawyer and educator, Froh lives in Barrie, Ontario, situated within the traditional territory of the Georgian Bay Métis Community. Froh taught as adjunct faculty at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law, and is faculty at the Banff Centre's Lougheed Leadership Institute specializing in Indigenous governance.

Consequences of the Aboriginal residential schools system continue beyond Canada's apology

Monday, March 2, 2015

From left: Alumni Bob Rae, Mayo Moran, Douglas Sanderson at the Hart House discussion on the residential schools system with lawyer Delia Opekokew.

Story and Photos by David Kumagai, 3L


Bob Rae is urging the next generation of Canadians to confront Canada’s legacy of abuse against Aboriginal peoples.  

Getting into UofT Law - JD Admissions

JD Admissions visits UofT Department of Criminology

JD AdmissionsGet the inside scoop on applying to our JD program directly from the Faculty of Law Admissions Office and hear from current law students. 

Learn about our whole-person admission process and how to improve your application to our JD program. 

Special issue of UTLJ devoted to the residential school litigation and settlement

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

The new issue (64:4) of the University of Toronto Law Journal (UTLJ) is a special issue devoted to the residential school litigation and settlement, co-edited by Profs. Mayo Moran and Kent Roach. As well as their introduction, each of them contributes an article, along with articles by other distinguished scholars including frequent visitor to the U of T law school, Prof. John Borrows.

See the issue web page on the University of Toronto Press website.