MAID town hall: Professor Trudo Lemmens joins CBC's The National Conversation to discuss proposed changes to medical assistance in dying

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Professor Trudo Lemmens is the Faculty's Scholl Chair in Health Law and Policy. His research focuses on the interaction between law, governance tools, and ethical norms and values in the context of health care, biomedical research, pharmaceutical and other health product development, and knowledge production.

U of T's Centre for Ethics launches Oxford Handbook of Ethics of AI

Wednesday, July 22, 2020
Markus Dubber
Markus Dubber, the director of U of T's Centre for Ethics, co-edited the nearly 900-page handbook, which examines the evolving field of AI through an interdisciplinary and international lens (photo courtesy Faculty of Law)

The Future of Work in the Age of Automation and AI: C4eJournal

Wednesday, July 15, 2020
C4eJournal the future of work in the age of automation and AI
Based on an international and interdisciplinary online conference in May 2020, hosted by the University of Toronto's Centre for Ethics, the Future of Work in the Age of Automation and AI symposium explored the implications and complications that automation and AI have introduced into the work-leisure matrix, by considering possible futures of work that have been fram

Professor Sophia Moreau's "Faces of Inequality" book forum published in the Centre for Ethics (C4E) online journal

Monday, June 15, 2020
In November 2019, Professor of Law and Philosophy, Sophia Moreau, participated in an international and interdisciplinary book forum (Author Meets Critics) organized by the University of Toronto's Centre for Ethics, in response to Moreau's book, Faces of Inequality: A Theory of Wrongful Discrimination (

U of T's Centre for Ethics explores ethical questions surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Markus Dubber

Markus Dubber, director of U of T's Centre for Ethics, says U of T is uniquely situated to tackle the ethical dimensions of the COVID-19 crisis because it's a "global research university with unusual excellence across the board" (photo by Chris Sorensen)

'Built for this moment': Prof. Markus Dubber helps develop ethics of AI handbook

Tuesday, March 5, 2019

By Chris Sorensen

The University of Toronto’s prowess in artificial intelligence research is widely recognized, attracting a who’s who of technology companies to Canada’s largest city. Less well known, however, is the work being done by people like Prof. Markus Dubber to ensure the potentially transformative technology will be developed responsibly.

Brooke MacKenzie

SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Rethinking lawyers' monopoly: Enhancing access to justice by redefining who (and what) can practise law
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Brooke MacKenzie is a doctoral candidate at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law. Her research focuses on legal ethics and professional regulation, civil procedure, tort law, and civil justice reform. Brooke has a particular interest in how emerging technologies can improve the practice of law and the efficiency and effectiveness of our civil justice system. Her doctoral project engages with whether and how Canadian law societies can embrace artificial intelligence in the provision of legal services to serve unmet legal needs while protecting the public interest.

Brooke is also a practising lawyer at MacKenzie Barristers P.C., where her practice concentrates on issues of professional responsibility and liability as well as civil appeals. Before co-founding MacKenzie Barristers, she practised for three years in the litigation group at McCarthy Tétrault LLP. Brooke has appeared as counsel before the Supreme Court of Canada, Ontario Court of Appeal, Federal Court of Appeal, Ontario Superior Court, and the Federal Court, as well as the Law Society Tribunal and other administrative bodies.

In 2017, Brooke was awarded the OBA Foundation Chief Justice of Ontario Fellowship in Legal Ethics and Professionalism Studies for her research and writing on conflicts of interest, confidentiality obligations, lawyers' duty of loyalty to their clients, and motions for the disqualification of counsel. 

Brooke completed her LL.M. in 2016 at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law. Her Masters' thesis, "Effecting a culture shift: An empirical review of Ontario's summary judgment reforms", was published in the Osgoode Hall Law Journal in 2017, and has since been cited before the Supreme Court of Canada.

Brooke teaches Legal Ethics at Osgoode Hall Law School, and has guest lectured at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law and Queen’s University Faculty of Law. She is also regularly invited to speak at continuing professional development events on litigation and professional responsibility issues.

S.J.D. (Candidate), University of Toronto, 2018--
LL.M., University of Toronto, 2016
J.D., Queen's University, 2012
B.A., Queen's University, 2009
Awards and Distinctions
University of Toronto Graduate Fellowship in Law and Innovation (2018)
OBA Foundation Chief Justice of Ontario Fellowship in Legal Ethics and Professionalism Studies (2017-2018)
Mark MacGuigan Prize for Best Oralist, Laskin Moot (2012)
Queen's Faculty of Law Dean's Honour List (2010-2012)
Professional Affiliations
Law Society of Ontario (called to Bar of Ontario in 2013)
Adjunct Faculty, Osgoode Hall Law School
Canadian Association for Legal Ethics
Canadian Bar Association
Advocates' Society
Toronto Lawyers' Association
Selected Publications

"Explaining Disqualification: An Empirical Review of Motions for the Removal of Counsel", (2020) 45:2 Queen's Law Journal 199 (peer-reviewed).

​“Common-sense causation: How a robust and pragmatic application of the ‘but for’ test can solve the circular causation problem in cases of multiple contributing tortfeasors”, in Todd L. Archibald, ed., Annual Review of Civil Litigation, 2018 (Toronto: Thomson Reuters, 2018) 468 (co-authored).

"Developments in the Legal Profession: Lizotte, Alberta and Green and the Growing Power of Privilege and Professional Regulators", (2018) 82 Supreme Court Law Review (2d) 71 (reproduced by permission of LexisNexis Canada Inc.).

"Effecting a Culture Shift: An Empirical Review of Ontario's Summary Judgment Reform", (2017) 54:4 Osgoode Hall Law Journal 1275 (peer-reviewed).

Time for courts to go paperless”, Law Times, April 24, 2017.

​​"Shifting blame? Reassessing the tort of inducing breach of contract following A.I. Enterprises", in Todd L. Archibald and Randall Scott Echlin, eds., Annual Review of Civil Litigation, 2016 (Toronto: Thomson Reuters, 2016) 245 (reproduced by permission of Thomson Reuters Canada Limited).

"#Inappropriate: Ramifications of teachers' off-duty social media postings", (2016) 26.1 Education Law Journal 53 (reproduced by permission of Thomson Reuters Canada Limited).

​​"Backpedalling on Charter Damages: Henry v British Columbia (Attorney General)", (2016) 45(3) Advocates' Quarterly 359 (reproduced by permission of Thomson Reuters Canada Limited).

"Developments in Access to Justice: Trial Lawyers' Association of British Columbia and the Supreme Court's use of the Constitution to Protect Public Access to the Courts", (2016) 72 Supreme Court Law Review (2d) 485 (reproduced by permission of LexisNexis Canada Inc.).

"Like a prayer: Administrative law implications of the Supreme Court's freedom of religion decision in Saguenay", (2015) 34(2) Advocates' Journal 42.

"The Not-So-Bright Line Rule: Lingering Questions About Lawyers' Duty to Avoid Conflicting Interests: CN Railway v McKercher", (2014) 42 Advocates' Quarterly 422 (reproduced by permission of Thomson Reuters Canada Limited).

"Better value: Problems with the billable hour and the viability of value-based billing", (2013) 90 Canadian Bar Review 677 (reproduced by permission of the Canadian Bar Review) (peer-reviewed).

"Settling for less: How the Rules of Civil Procedure overlook the public perspective of justice", (2011) 39 Advocates' Quarterly 222 (reproduced by permission of Thomson Reuters Canada Limited).

Research Interests
Legal Ethics
Legal Process
Tort Law and Tort Theory
Committee Members

Listen: Q&A with Prof. Ayelet Shachar on "Golden Visas, Dreamers, & Ethics in Immigration"

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

Listen to Prof. Ayelet Shachar discuss "Golden Visas, Dreamers, & Ethics in Immigration" in a podcast with the journal Ethics & International Affairs (a complete transcript is also available). The discussion is based on Prof.