David Bullock

David Bullock
SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Tort law as a response to collective action problems
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

David is a Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) candidate at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law.  His research interests include the intersection of public and private law (in particularly property and tort) as it relates to the environment, international law, and constitutional law.

David is a graduate of Victoria University of Wellington and Yale Law School. He began his career as  judicial clerk to the former Chief Justice of New Zealand, the Rt Hon Dame Sian Elias GNZM, before commencing professional practice at a specialist litigation firm in Auckland, New Zealand.  As a lawyer, David has acted for a range of environmental NGOs and has appeared at all levels of New Zealand courts, including in leading cases on climate change, the exportation of indigenous timber, seabed mining, off-shore oil exploration, election advertising, and police interrogation.  David has also regularly acted in sports disputes, regulatory proceedings, and complex commercial litigation.

LLM, Yale Law School (2017)
LLB(Hons), Victoria University of Wellington (2011)
BCA (Economics), Victoria University of Wellington (2011)
Awards and Distinctions
Connaught International Scholarship (2020)
Fulbright General Graduate Scholarship (2016)
William Georgetti Scholarship (2016)
Victoria University Medal of Academic Excellence (2011)
Chapman Tripp Prize (2011)
Dean’s List for Academic Excellence (2011)
Chris Highfield Memorial Prize (2011)
Quentin-Baxter Prize in International Law (2011)
IPANZ Prize in Public Administration (2011)
Robert Orr McGechan Prize (2010)
Archibald Francis McCallum Scholarship (2010)
Val Gormley Memorial Prize (2010)
Lord Cooke of Thorndon Prize (2009)
A H Johnstone Scholarship in Law (2009)
New Zealand Recent Law Review Prize (2009)
Alumni Association Prize (2008)
Mario Patrono Prize (2007)
Faculty of Law Prize (2007)
Professional Affiliations
Barrister and Solicitor of the High Court of New Zealand
Selected Publications

“Three Strikes and the Interpretative Obligation: Parliamentary Intention and the Ascription of Meaning under the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act” (2020) 29 New Zealand Universities Law Review (forthcoming)

“Combating Climate Recalcitrance: Carbon-related Border Tax Adjustments in a New Era of Global Climate Governance” (2018) 27 Washington International Law Journal 609

“Political Costs and the Challenge of Tradable Environmental Markets” (2017) 29 Georgetown Environmental Law Review 609

"A Defence of Statutory Property” (2017) 48 Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 529

“The Wane of s 5 of the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990” [2017] New Zealand Law Journal 164

“Costs of Costs Applications” [2014] New Zealand Law Journal 348 (with Julian Long)

“Emissions Trading in New Zealand: Development, Challenges and Design” (2012) 21 Environmental Politics 657

“Multi-party Governance: Managing the Unity-Distinctiveness Dilemma in Executive Coalitions” (2012) 18 Party Politics 349 (with Jonathan Boston)

"Electoral Expression with Institutional Bounds: Reframing the Judicial Treatment of Elections in New Zealand" (2011) 42 Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 459

“Home Detention as a Stand-alone Sentence” (2011) 2 New Zealand Law Students’ Journal 603

"Experiments in Executive Government under MMP in New Zealand: Contrasting Approaches to Multi-party Governance” (2009) 7 New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law 39 (with Jonathan Boston)

Research Interests
Environmental Law
International Law
Political Philosophy and Theory
Property Law
Tort Law and Tort Theory
Committee Members

Shifting borders: Invisible, but very real: Professor Ayelet Shachar's essay published in the UNESCO Courier

Wednesday, July 22, 2020

First published in 1948, the UNESCO Courier is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization magazine. It has the largest and widest-ranging readership of all the journals published by the United Nations and its specialized institutions. 

ILS x OBA International Law Section Presents: Practicing International Law

Join the ILS and the OBA International Law Section on February 26th, 2020 to hear from lawyers and practitioners in Toronto on how they have built international law into their practices. Lunch will be provided.

Majid Nikouei

SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Constituent Power in Theory and Practice of Islamic Republic of Iran: A Historical Analysis
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Majid Nikouei thinks about modern constitutionalism and its challenges in Muslim-majority countries. He is particularly interested in how the elements of modern constitutionalism, such as rule of law and human rights, can be implemented in the Iranian and Shi'ite contexts. Before joining the University of Toronto, Majid was an adjacent lecturer at Islamic Azad University (Iran) and has taught courses in constitutional law, Islam and human rights, and public law in Islam.

PhD (Public Law), Shahid Beheshti university (formerly known as National University), Tehran, Iran (summa cum laude)
M.Soc.Sc.(International Human Rights Law), Åbo Akademi University (ÅAU), Turku, Finland (summa cum laude)
L.L.M. (International Law), Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran (highest honours)
L.L.B. Shahid Beheshti university (formerly known as National University), Tehran, Iran
Awards and Distinctions
University of Toronto, Faculty of Law Scholarship, 2019.
Visiting Scholar, Pretoria University, South Africa, 2016.
NOET (National Organization of Educational Testing) Scholarship, Iran, 2005.
Professional Affiliations
Lawyer, Iranian Central Bar Association, 2017-present.
Adjunct Professor, Islamic Azad University of Najaf Aabad, 2015-2018.
Head of International and Human Rights Committee in Isfahan Bar Association (Iran), 2018.
Member of LAWJIP (Law, Justice and International Peace) Foundation, Esfahan, Iran, 2017
Selected Publications


"Jurisprudence of Tolerance: Hate Speech, Article 17 and Theory of Democracy in the European Convention on Human Rights" (2019) 8:1 International Human Rights Law Review 67-88 (with M. Zamani).

"Intervention by Invitation, Collective Self-defence and the Enigma of Effective Control" (2017) 16:4 Chinese Journal of International Law 663-694 (with M. Zamani).

"The Secession of Crimea: Where Does International Law Stand?" (2016) 85:1 Nordic Journal of International Law 37-64 (with M. Zamani).

Persian (Farsi)


"From Natural Law to Natural Rights: Conceptual Analysis and Historical Evolution" (2017) 47:3 Public Law Studies Quarterly 747-769 (with S. Seyed Fatemi).

"A Critical analysis of ‘Disclosive Quality of Certainty (Qat‘) in Revealing Reality’ in Shi‘i Osul al-fiqh‌ in Light of Modern Epistemology" (2019) 11:20 Journal of Studies in Islamic Law and Jurisprudence 373-402 (with H Saraf). 

"The Avicenna’s Contribution to the Natural Law Theory of Aquinas" (2016) 2:2 Journal of Comparative Studies on Islamic and Western Law 49-76 (with S. Seyed Fatemi).

 "Reexamining the independent rationality (al-mustaqillat al-‘aqliyya) in Shi‘i Osul al-fiqh in Light of Rawls’s Analytical Framework in ‘Theory of Justice’" Journal of Comparative Law (NAMEH-YE MOFID) Forthcoming.

"Examining the Legality of Intervention by Invitation: A Critical Approach to Interventions in Mali, Ukraine, Syria and Yemen" (2017) 18:54 The Quarterly Journal of Public Law Research 289-317 (with M. Zamani).

"Examining the Exercise of Self-determination in Crimea from the Perspective of International and Constitutional Law" (2016) 73:1 Revue de la Recherche Juridique 253-284 (with M. Zamani).

"Human Rights and Rawls’s the Law of People: A Critical Approach" (2012) 76:79 The Judiciary Law Journal 125-153.


Natural Law in Shi‘ite Teachings and Its Implications For Theory of State, Tehran: Nashre Ney (forthcoming).

 Translation From English to Farsi: Anderi Marmor, Philosophy of Law, Princeton University Press, 2011. The translation was published by Negahe Moaser Publication, 2012 (with S. Abedi).

Research Interests
International Law
Islamic Law
Law and Religion
Legal History
Legal Theory
Political Philosophy and Theory
Committee Members
Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi, Professor of History and Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations at University of Toronto

Revolution of Our Times: Hong Kong's Black Shirt Movement Explained

Revolution of Our Times: Hong Kong's Black Shirt Movement Explained

Wednesday, October 30th, 2019
Jackman Law Building, P115
12:30 - 2:00 pm

Kashmir Human Rights Crisis: A Teach-In

Kashmir Human Rights Crisis: A Teach-In
November 4, 2019, 6-8 pm
Moot Court Room, J250
Jackman Law Building, 78 Queens Park Crescent

Julian Huertas

SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Human Rights Under Judicial Attack? When Domestic Courts Challenge the Authority of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Julian Huertas Cardenas is a doctoral candidate at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law under the supervision of Professor Karen Knop. His research focuses on the recent resistance to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights by some domestic courts in Latin America. He holds an LL.M. from Columbia Law School, an LL.M. in International Law from Universidad de La Sabana (Colombia), and received the Law degree (equivalent to an LL.B.) from Universidad del Rosario (Colombia). He has been Assistant Professor of international law, now on leave, at Universidad de La Sabana since 2014. His publications address the relationship between international and domestic law in Colombia and Latin America. He has also been a coach of La Sabana's teams that participate in moot courts like the Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition and the ELSA Moot Court Competition on WTO Law. Prior to joining La Sabana, he worked for two years at Schlumberger, an oilfield services company. 

S.J.D. Candidate, University of Toronto Faculty of Law (2019-present).
LL.M., Columbia University (2019).
LL.M. in International Law, Universidad de La Sabana (Colombia) (2016).
LL.B., Universidad del Rosario (Colombia) (2011).
Awards and Distinctions
Mary H. Beatty Fellowship, University of Toronto (2020).
Warren K. Winkler Graduate Fellowship in International Human Rights, University of Toronto Faculty of Law (2019).
Naomi Overend Fellowship in Human Rights, University of Toronto Faculty of Law (2019).
Houlden & Morawetz Graduate Scholarship, University of Toronto Faculty of Law (2019).
University of Toronto Fellowship (2019).
Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar, Columbia Law School (2019).
Parker School Recognition of Achievement in International and Comparative Law, Columbia Law School (2019).
Laureate Thesis Award – Summa cum laude, Universidad de La Sabana (2016).
Selected Publications

Journal Articles

  • Diagnóstico sobre las relaciones entre el derecho internacional y el derecho interno. El caso colombiano (with Paola Acosta, Juana Acosta & Daniel Rivas), 16 Estudios Constitucionales, 2018.
  • Caso Chaparro Álvarez vs. Ecuador. Un caso de arbitraje sui generis y delegación de jurisdicción en el SIDH (with Nicolás Córdoba), 6 Revista Iberoamericana de Derecho Internacional y de la Integración, 2017.
  • Monismo moderado colombiano: examen a la teoría oficial de la Corte Constitucional desde la obra de Alfred Verdross, 132 Vniversitas, 2016.

Book Chapters

  • Not so Moderate: The Relationship Between the Colombian Legal System and International Law (with Carlos Arevalo), in Alejandro Linares-Cantillo (ed.), Constitutionalism: Old Dilemmas, New Insights (Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2020).

  • Integración Europea, una nueva dogmática jurídica y el salto hacia el constitucionalismo plural, in Juan Pablo Pampillo & Arturo Damián (eds.), Integraciones Jurídicas Americanas: teoría, historia, instituciones y derecho (Editorial Porrúa, 2017).

  • Teorías sobre la relación entre el derecho interno y el derecho internacional en la jurisprudencia constitucional colombiana (with Paola Acosta), in Juana Acosta, Paola Acosta, et al. (eds), De Anacronismos y Vaticinios: Diagnóstico sobre las Relaciones entre el Derecho Internacional y el Derecho Interno en Latinoamérica (Universidad Externado de Colombia, 2017).

  • De los modelos de desarrollo al derecho a la igualdad (with Juan Fernando Sánchez), in Rodríguez, Gloria & Vargas-Chaves, Iván (eds.), Políticas de igualdad e intereses colectivos: reflexiones y nuevos retos (Editorial Ibáñez, Universidad de Salamanca, 2014).


  • The Precarity of the People, Columbia Center for Contemporary Critical Thought, June 2019 (Link here).
  • Assemblies, People and Democracy in 2019, Columbia Center for Contemporary Critical Thought, June 2019 (Link here).
  • To Destitute the World, Columbia Center for Contemporary Critical Thought, October 2018 (Link here).


Research Interests
Comparative Law
International Law
Judicial Decision-Making
Law and Globalization
Legal Theory
Committee Members

The IHRP's Vincent Wong writes "Attacks on the media in Hong Kong threaten democracy"

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Vincent Wong '13, the William C. Graham Research Associate at U of T Law's International Human Rights Program, has written a commentary in the Toronto Star about recent attacks on journalists in Hong Kong and the broader pattern of violence towards the media ("Attacks on the media in Hong Kong threaten democracy," July 29, 2019).