Florence Ashley

Picture of a hot redhead.
SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Deterring Transgender Conversion Therapy Through Disciplinary Proceedings and Professional Liability
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Florence is a transfeminine doctoral student at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law. As part of their doctorate, they are also completing a Collaborative Specialization in Bioethics with the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. Their work, which is supported by a SSHRC Joseph-Armand Bombardier Doctoral Scholarship, looks at the law and bioethics surrounding clinical practices towards trans youth, with a special emphasis on trans conversion therapy. Prior to joining the SJD program, Florence served as the first openly transfeminine clerk at the Supreme Court of Canada, working in the chambers of Justice Sheilah Martin (2019-2020).

A deeply transdisciplinary scholar, Florence's work engages law, bioethics, social sciences, and trans studies and is published in journals just as broadly ranging. Their University of Toronto Law Journal article, “Don’t Be So Hateful: The Insufficiency of Anti-Discrimination and Hate Crime Laws in Improving Trans Wellbeing”, inspired the first special issue on trans law in Canadian history. Their article “Gatekeeping Hormone Replacement Therapy for Transgender Patients is Dehumanising​​” was selected as Editors Choice by the Journal of Medical Ethics and featured in a National Post article. More recently, their work on trans conversion therapy has been cited by the United Nations Independent Expert on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity.

Outside of the university, Florence frequently contributes to media conversations on trans issues through op-eds and interviews. For their academic work, public advocacy, and leadership in trans communities, Florence was awarded the 2018-2019 Canadian Bar Association's SOGIC Hero Award.

McGill University Faculty of Law, LL.M. (Bioeth.) 2019
McGill University Faculty of Law, B.C.L./J.D. 2017
Awards and Distinctions
SSHRC Joseph-Armand Bombardier CGS-D (2020-2024)
Massey College Junior Fellow (2020-2021)
McGill University Scarlet Key Society (2019)
Forces AVENIR Graduate Personality Finalist Prize (2019)
Canadian Bar Association SOGIC Section Hero Award (2018-2019)
SSHRC Joseph-Armand Bombardier CGS-M (2018-2019)
McGill Research Group on Health and Law Fellowship (2017-2019)
Start Proud Student Leadership Scholarship (2018)
O’Brien Fellowship in Human Rights and Legal Pluralism (2017-2018)
John W. Cook, K.C. Prize (2017)
Bourse Dorais-Ryan (2017)
Edwin Botsford Busteed Scholarship (2017)
Students’ Society of McGill University Community Engagement Award (2016-2017)
Professional Affiliations
Gender Dysphoria Affirmative Working Group
World Professional Association for Transgender Health
Canadian Professional Association for Transgender Health
Selected Publications

“Nuancing Feminist Perspectives on the Voluntary Intoxication Defence”, (2020) 43:5 Manitoba Law Journal 65

“Simpson’s Paradox in LGBTQ+ Policy: A Case Study” (2020) Sexuality Research and Social Policy

“Homophobia, Conversion Therapy, and Care Models for Trans Youth: Defending the Gender-Affirmative Approach” (2020) 17:4 Journal of LGBT Youth 361

“A Critical Commentary on ‘Rapid-Onset Gender Dysphoria’” (2020) 68:4 The Sociological Review 779

“Surgical Informed Consent and Recognizing a Perioperative Duty to Disclose in Transgender Healthcare” (2020) 13:1 McGill Journal of Law and Health 73

“The Misuse of Gender Dysphoria: Toward Greater Conceptual Clarity in Transgender Health” (2020) Perspectives on Psychological Science

“Gatekeeping Hormone Replacement Therapy for Transgender Patients is Dehumanising” (2019) 45:7 Journal of Medical Ethics 480 (selected as Editor’s Choice)

“Les personnes non-binaires en français : une perspective concernée et militante” (2019) 11:14 H-France Salon art. 5

“Thinking an Ethics of Gender Exploration: Against Delaying Transition for Transgender and Gender Creative Youth” (2019) 24:2 Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 223

“Genderfucking Non-Disclosure: Sexual Fraud, Transgender Bodies, and Messy Identities” (2018) 41:2 Dalhousie Law Journal 339

“Don’t Be So Hateful: The Insufficiency of Anti-Discrimination and Hate Crime Laws in Improving Trans Wellbeing” (2018) 68:1 University of Toronto Law Journal 1

“Introduction – Canada” in Zhan Chiam, Sandra Duffy, and Matilda González Gil (eds.), Trans Legal Mapping Report 2017: Recognition Before the Law (Geneva: ILGA)

“Qui est-ille ? Le respect langagier des élèves non-binaires, aux limites du droit” (2017) 63:2 Service social 35–50


Research Interests
Charter of Rights
Criminal Law 
Feminist Analysis of Law
Health Law
Sexuality and the Law
Committee Members

Michaël Lessard

SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Giving Effect to Voiceless Autonomy
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5
University of Toronto, SJD (in progress)
New York University, LLM (Legal Theory)
McGill University, BCL & LLB (Hons.)
Awards and Distinctions
SSHRC Joseph-Armand Bombardier Doctoral Scholarship
FRQSC Doctoral Research Scholarship
Macdonald Travelling Scholarship (McGill Faculty of Law)
National Millennium Excellence Entrance Award (Government of Canada)
Lieutenant Governor’s Youth Medal (Government of Québec)
Professional Affiliations
Barreau du Québec (2016)
Paul-André Crépeau Centre for Private and Comparative Law
Institut de recherches et d’études féministes
Théâtre du Portage
Young Bar of Montréal
Other information


  • Bodies, Identities and the Self 
    (mainly Health Law & Bioethics, Animal Law, Law of Persons, Family Law)
  • Sexual and Conjugal Violence
  • Linguistic Sexism 
Selected Publications


Réflexions contemporaines sur la mort, volume 1 : Perspectives culturelles [trans. Contemporary Reflections on Death, Volume 1: Cultural Perspectives], Saint-Joseph-du-Lac, M éditeur [forthcoming in 2021] (edited volume with Audrey Deveault). 

Réflexions contemporaines sur la mort, volume 2 : Perspectives sociales [trans. Contemporary Reflections on Death, Volume 2: Social Perspectives], Saint-Joseph-du-Lac, M éditeur [forthcoming in 2021] (edited volume with Audrey Deveault). 

Mourir au 21e siècle : entre corporalités et technologies [trans. Dying in the 21st Century: Corporealities and Technologies], Montréal, Yvon Blais [forthcoming in 2020] (edited volume with Audrey Deveault). 

Manuel de grammaire non sexiste et inclusive [trans. Non-Sexist and Inclusive Grammar Guide], Paris, Syllepse, 2018 [French edition of the Grammaire non sexiste de la langue française] (with Suzanne Zaccour). 

Grammaire non sexiste de la langue française [trans. Non-Sexist Grammar of the French Language]Saint-Joseph-du-Lac, M éditeur, 2017 (with Suzanne Zaccour). 

Dictionnaire critique du sexisme linguistique [trans. Critical Dictionary of Linguistic Sexism], Montréal, Somme Toute, 2017 (edited volume with Suzanne Zaccour). 



Where the Wild Things Are (and Have Been): A Genealogy of Legal Discourses on Animals in Québec (with Marie-Andrée Plante) [work in progress].

La rédaction inclusive en droit : pourquoi les objections ratent-elles la cible? [trans. Inclusive Legal Writing: Why Do Objections Miss the Target?] [under review]. 

Remuer ciel et terre : L’autonomie corporelle après la mort au regard de l’exhumation [trans. Leave No Stone Unturned: Bodily Autonomy After Death and Disinterment], (2021) 66 McGill Law Journal [forthcoming]. 

  • Arguing that judges, in order to discover the deceased’s presumptive wishes in the absence of clearly expressed wishes regarding the disposal of their body, uses a narrative approach or a relational approach to human nature. Theorizing and critically assessing the case law on disinterment since the adoption of the Civil Code of Québec in 1994. 

Le droit de vie ou de mort sur l’animal : Quelle évolution depuis la reconnaissance des animaux comme êtres sensibles? [trans. The Right of Life and Death over Animals: Any Progress since the Recognition of Animals as Sentient Beings?], (2021) Revue juridique Thémis de l’Université de Montréal [forthcoming]. 

Can Sentience Recognition Protect Animals? Lessons from Québec’s Animal Law Reform, (2021) 27:1 Animal Law Review [forthcoming]. 

  • Arguing (1) that legal sentience recognition’s fate is to become more than symbolic and to receive normative force, (2) that considering a legal duty to respect animal sentience as an instrument to prevent their killing and exploitation is a mistake, and (3) that the legal protection of “biological needs” might bring hope where sentience does not by covering some of sentience’s blind spots. 

Quel espoir pour les victimes de violences sexuelles ou conjugales? L’indemnisation étatique : enquête sur une structure juridique défaillante [trans. What Hope is There for Victims of Sexual or Domestic Violence? State Compensation: Investigating a Failing Legal Structure], (2020) 61:3 Cahiers de droit [forthcoming in 2020]. 

  • Providing a critical assessment of the Crime Victims Compensation Act of Québec from the perspective of sexual assault and domestic violence victims. 

A Dynamic Judicial Approach to Diachronic Legislative Integrity, (2020) 33:2 Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 481.

  • Arguing that theories of statutory interpretation should account for the fact that legislative bodies are in a dynamic process of building coherence and consistency in the law, but that the law might not be a coherent, consistent and complete whole yet. Consequently, courts ought to give more importance to legal norms that a legislative body is most committed to and less to norms this body has neglected or abandoned although they might still be visible in legal texts. 

Les amoureux sur les bancs publics: Le traitement juridique du polyamour en droit québécois [trans. Lovers on Public Benches: The Legal Treatment of Polyamory under Québec Law], (2019) 32:1 Canadian Journal of Family Law 1. 

  • Defining polyamory, monoamory, and related concepts. Arguing that four approaches are used in Québec to orient people toward monogamous relationships and away from polyamorous relationships: (1) limiting to two the number of parents per child, (2) facilitating spousal care, (3) protecting spouses against economic vulnerability, and (4) prohibiting certain polyamorous arrangements (criminalization of polygamy). 

Quel genre de droit? Autopsie du sexisme dans la langue juridique [trans. Autopsy of Sexism in the Legal Language], [2019] (2017) 47:2 Revue de droit de l’Université Sherbrooke 225 (with Suzanne Zaccour). 

  • Tracking sexism in the language of the law, laying down a nomenclature of jurilinguistic sexisms (lexical, grammatical, terminological) as well as developing two new notions: the linguistic glass ceiling and ostentatious feminines. 
  • Cited by the Supreme Court of Canada in R. v. Friesen, 2020 SCC 9. 

Le calcul des aliments du parent de fait : de l’approche synchronique à l’approche étapiste [trans. Calculating the support paid by a de facto parent: moving from a synchronic to a layered approach], (2019) 60:1 Cahiers de droit 251. 

  • Arguingfor the adoption of a layered approach to child support, under which the support obligation of a de facto parent is subsidiary to the obligation of the civil parent. 

« Why couldn’t you just keep your knees together? » L’obligation déontologique des juges face aux victimes d’agression sexuelle [trans. The Ethical Obligations of Judges in Sexual Violence Cases], [2019] (2017) 63:1 McGill Law Journal 155. 

  • Arguingthat judges commit a breach of judicial ethics when they make a remark or a statement that (1) is likely to maintain the myth of the good victim of sexual violence, (2) participates in one of the four related stereotypes condemned in law and (3) is not justified by its relevance and necessity for legal reasoning.

Les dénonciations publiques d’agressions sexuelles : du mauvais usage de la présomption d’innocence [trans. Public Denunciation of Sexual Assault: Misunderstanding the Presumption of Innocence], (2017) 29:2 Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 401. 

  • Arguing that using the notion of presumption of innocence to prevent victims from denunciating cases of sexual assault is an inappropriate use of the notion. 



Euthanasie, abattage et mise à mort d’animaux: comment interpréter la Loi sur le bien-être et la sécurité de l’animal ? – Commentaire sur Road to Home Rescue Support c Ville de Montréal [trans. Euthanasia, slaughter and killing of animals: How to interpret the Animal Welfare and Safety Act? – Comments on Road to Home Rescue Support c Ville de Montréal], 50 Revue générale de droit 319 (with Romane Bonenfant). 

  • Providing a critical assessment of Road to Home Rescue Support c Ville de Montréal, 2019 QCCA 2187. 



Violence conjugale et droit de la famille : la méconnue ordonnance de protection [trans. Domestic Violence and Family Law: The Overlooked Protection Order], (2020) October Repères 3167. 

  • Analyzing recent legislative and judicial developments calling on practitioners and judges to better protect domestic violence victims by seeking and issuing protection orders. 

Coronavirus : développements récents en droit de la famille durant la pandémie de la COVID-19 (14 avril au 1er juin 2020) [trans. Coronavirus: Recent Developments in Family Law During the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 14 to June 1st, 2020)], (2020) June Repères. 

  • Providing a critical overview of family law developments, discussing among others return to school cases.  

Coronavirus : développements récents en droit de la famille concernant la garde et l’accès durant la pandémie de la COVID-19 (13 mars au 13 avril 2020) [trans. Coronavirus: Recent Developments in Family Law Regarding Custody and Access During the COVID-19 Pandemic (March 13 to April 13, 2020)], (2020) April Repères 2983. 

  • Providing a critical overview of family law developments, discussing among others custody and access cases. 

Commentaire sur la décision Roy c. Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux de l’Est-de-l'Île-de-Montréal – Responsabilité civile pour entrave à la volonté de don d’organes et de tissus : l’autonomie corporelle après la mort [trans. Commentary on Roy c. Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux de l’Est-de-l'Île-de-Montréal – Civil liability for obstructing the wish to donate organs and tissues : Bodily autonomy after death], (2020) March Repères 2924. 

  • Providing a critical assessment of Roy c. Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux de l’Est-de-l'Île-de-Montréal, 2019 QCCQ 6257, a rare case of civil liability in the context of posthumous organ donation. 

Dialogue dissident : la désobéissance a-t-elle sa place sous une autorité linguistique inclusive? [trans. Dissenting dialogue: does disobedience have its place under an inclusive linguistic authority?], (2018) 53 Cahiers de l’éducation permanente 35 (with Suzanne Zaccour). 

  • Arguing that disobedience to linguistic authorities is not only justified when confronted to sexist institutions but also to inclusive ones in some circumstances. 

Parler féministe [trans. Speak Feminist], (2018) 1 “Lumières” Revue L’Esprit Libre 15 (with Suzanne Zaccour). 

  • Arguing in favour of “ostentatious” feminine words, that is, feminine words audibly distinct from masculine words. 



Poursuivre son agresseur aux petites créances? [trans. Suing One’s Sexual Assailant at the Small Claims Division?] in Penser une justice féministe, J. Chateauvert and S. Mayer (eds.), Remue-ménage, Montréal [forthcoming in 2020] (with Suzanne Zaccour). 

  • Outlining the pros and cons of suing one’s sexual assailant at the Small Claims Division of the Court of Québec. 



Mémoire sur le Projet de loi no 64, Loi modernisant des dispositions législatives en matière de protection des renseignements personnels, [trans. Brief on Bill 64, An Act to modernize legislative provisions as regards the protection of personal information], presented to the Committee on Institutions, National Assembly of Québec, October 25, 2020 (with Suzanne Zaccour for Québec contre les violences sexuelles). 

Comments on the Proposed Regulatory Provisions under the Security from Trespass and Protecting Food Safety Act, presented to the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs of Ontario, October 15, 2020 (with the Animal Justice Student Association of the University of Toronto).

Mémoire sur le traitement juridique des personnes polyamoureuses et de leurs enfants [trans. Brief on the Legal Treatment of Polyamorists and their Children], Ministère de la Justice du Québec, June 28, 2019.  

Reviewed and commented on the draft of Terminology Standardization Division (Government of Canada), Gender and sexual diversity glossary, November 12, 2018. 

Mémoire sur la situation juridique des personnes polyamoureuses au Québec [trans. Brief on the Legal Status of Polyamorous Persons in Québec], Commission citoyenne sur le droit de la famille, Chambre des notaires du Québec, August 2018. 



No relief for reprimanded ex-judge after sexist comments to victim in rape trial, Jeune Barreau de Montréal, November 19, 2020 (with Sangitha Jeyaseelan), online.

Un Québec indifférent aux victimes de violences sexuelles en ligne?, La Presse, October 30, 2020, online.

“Violence conjugale : La victime peut craindre pour sa sécurité physique, psychologique ou émotionnelle en matière de harcèlement criminel”, Jeune Barreau de Montréal, August 18, 2020 (with Romane Bonenfant), online.

“Violences sexuelles : une nouvelle loi réforme la prescription et protège les excuses”, Jeune Barreau de Montréal, July 30, 2020 (with Romane Bonenfant), online.

“Le droit protège-t-il la réputation des agresseurs?”, La Presse, July 15, 2020, online

“À qui appartient la langue française?”, Le Devoir, June 11, 2020, online.

“Le féminin mérite-t-il d’être entendu?”, Le Devoir, February 10, 2020, online

“La Cour d'appel tranche : Les chiens dangereux peuvent-ils être euthanasiés par les municipalités ?”, Jeune Barreau de Montréal, January 16, 2020 (with Romane Bonenfant), online

“Don d’organes : Pour un respect des personnes décédées”, La Presse, November 30, 2019, online.

“Comment aider les victimes de violence sexuelle et conjugale? Une réforme de l’IVAC est nécessaire”, La Presse, November 11, 2019, online.

“Avoir le droit de définir sa mort?”, Le Devoir, October 21, 2019, online.

“Violences sexuelles : un récent projet de loi ignoré des médias”, Jeune Barreau de Montréal, October 7, 2019 (with Romane Bonenfant), online.

“Il est temps de considerer la triparenté”, La Presse, August 24, 2019, online.

“Un consentement implicite, vraiment, docteur?”, La Presse, July 5, 2019, online.

“Laissez les sorcières, McCarthy et la liberté d’expression en paix!”, La Presse, February 21, 2019, online.

“Why couldn’t you just keep your knees together?” L’obligation déontologique des juges face aux victimes d’agression sexuelle, Extrajudiciaire, June, 2018. 

“Des bancs d’école au banc des accusés: le masculin destitué”, Le Devoir, November 18, 2017 (with Suzanne Zaccour), online

“Quand la ‘neutralité’ grammaticale rend les femmes invisibles”, Le Devoir, January 16, 2017 (with Suzanne Zaccour), online

“Le français n’a pas de sexe ?”, Ricochet, November 30, 2016 (with Suzanne Zaccour), online

“La langue du plafond de verre”, Ricochet, September 21, 2016 (with Suzanne Zaccour), online

“Le droit à la peine la moins sévère”, La Presse, April 25, 2016, online.

“Le vide juridique de l’aide médicale à mourir”, Le Devoir, December 12, 2015, online

“Du mauvais usage de la présomption d’innocence”, Le Devoir, October 30, 2015, online

“L’indignation. (Et après?)”, Faits et causes, December 2, 2014, (with Étienne Cloutier). 

“Jugement sur la prostitution : La réaction d’Ottawa pèche par électoralisme”, Le Devoir, January 14, 2014, online

Research Interests
Civil Law
Critical Legal Theory
Family Law
Feminist Analysis of Law
Health Law
Legal History
Legal Theory
Moral Philosophy
Sexuality and the Law
Committee Members
Andrew Franklin-Hall (Philosophy)

Leah West

SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Protecting Rights in the Digital Age: The Application of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in Cyberspace
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Leah West is a doctoral candidate at the Faculty of Law. Leah practices and studies national security law, and her current teaching and research interests explore the application of criminal, constitutional and international law to state conduct in cyberspace, and the role of gender in counter-terrorism. She joined the faculty at the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs at Carleton University as a Lecturer of National Security and Intelligence in July 2019. 

Leah regularly lectures and engages with the media on her areas of research interest, and has testified before the Senate Committee on Security and Defence. She is actively involved in the organization of the Canadian National Rounds of the Phillip C Jessup International Law Moot. She is also a founding editor of the Intrepid Blog (intrepidpodcast.com). 

Leah previously served as Counsel with the Department of Justice in the National Security Litigation and Advisory Group where she appeared before the Federal Court in designated proceedings and the Security Intelligence Review Committee.  Before being called to the Ontario Bar in 2016, Leah clerked for the Honourable Justice Mosley of the Federal Court of Canada.

Prior to attending law school, Leah served in the Canadian Armed Forces for ten years as an Armoured Officer. She deployed to Afghanistan in 2010 as a Junior Operations Officer where she developed the Female Engagement Strategy. 

University of Toronto, SJD Candidate (2018-Present)
University of Ottawa, LLM- International Humanitarian and Security Law (2018)
University of Toronto, JD (2015)
American Military University, MA - Intelligence Studies (2012)
Royal Military College of Canada, BA (Hons)- Politics
Awards and Distinctions
Mobilizing Insights in Defence and Security (MINDS) Initiative Doctoral Award + Supplement (2020-21)
Canadian Graduate Scholarship to Honour Nelson Mandela (2019-2022)
McCain Institute National Security and Counterterrorism Fellow (2019-2020)
Aspen Security Forum Scholar (2019)
PEO Scholar Award (2019)
University of Toronto Faculty of Law Doctoral Fellowship (2018-2019)
CDAI Nichola Goddard "Game Changer" Award (2017)
University of Ottawa Anti-Terrorism Law Fellowship (2016-2018)
University of Ottawa Admission Scholarship (2016)
Women in Defence and Security Memorial Scholarship (2014)
Royal Military College "Sword of Honour" (2007)
Canadian Defence Association Profession of Arms Award (2007)
CIS Academic All Canadian (2005, 2006, 2007)
Professional Affiliations
Member in Good Standing- Ontario Law Society
Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society
Canadian Bar Association
Ontario Bar Association
Selected Publications

Papers in refereed Publications

with Craig Forcese,  "Building New Haystacks: Information Retention and Data Exploitation by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service" (2019) 57 Alberta Law Review 175. 

“Canada’s Civilian Cyber Warriors and the International Legal Implications of a “Strong Secure and Engaged Cyber Policy,” Feb 2019, CDA Institute Vimy Paper Vol 41.

“Cyber Force: The International Legal Implications of the Communication Security Establishment’s Expanded Mandate under Bill C-59” 16 Can. J. L. & Tech. 381- 416.

“The Problem of Relevance: Intelligence to Evidence Lessons from UK Terrorism Prosecutions” (2018) 41:4 Manitoba Law
Journal 57-112.

with Craig Forcese, “Killing Citizens: Core Legal Dilemmas in the Targeted Killing of Canadian Terrorist Fighters Abroad”
(2017) 54 Canadian Yearbook of International Law 134-187


Forthcoming Publications

with Craig Forcese, National Security Law, 2nd Ed (Toronto: Irwin Law, 2020)

“Watchful Eyes: Review and Oversight in Canada” in Stephanie Carvin, Thomas Juneau and Craig Forcese, eds, The Canadian Security and Intelligence Community (forthcoming).

with Craig Forcese, “Judicial supervision of counter-terrorism laws in comparative democracies” in Ben Saul ed, Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism, 2nd Ed (forthcoming Edward Elgar: North Hampton).


Research Interests
Canadian Constitutional Law
Charter of Rights
Comparative Law
Criminal Procedure and Evidence
Feminist Analysis of Law
Immigration and Citizenship Law
International Law
National Security Law and Anti-Terrorism Law
Committee Members

Jennifer Bergman

SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Remedying Barriers or Reinforcing Them: The Role of the Law in Mental Health Service Use by Children Engaged in the Family Law and Criminal Justice Systems
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Jennifer Bergman is a Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD) candidate at the University of Toronto.  Before commencing the SJD in Fall 2018, she completed a Master of Laws at the University of Toronto, examining how, in practice, the law fails to protect children with mental health issues due to the way that mental health issues are defined in both the family law and criminal justice systems, and because neither system recognizes the importance of intersectionality.  Building upon the knowledge gained from her LL.M. research, her doctoral research explores the relationship between the law and the unmet mental health service needs of young people with mental health issues who are engaged with the family law (child welfare) and youth criminal justice systems, with a focus on how legal and policy frameworks, as written and as applied in practice, affect the experiences of these youth, particularly in terms of access to needed mental health supports and services, and how changes in the ways laws and policies are drafted and implemented can help to reduce the gap between service needs and service use.

Jennifer’s interest in the relationship between law and society generally, and in how different variables intersect and affect people’s perceptions and experiences, was substantially shaped by her undergraduate work in sociology.  In pursuing her Bachelor of Arts at the University of British Columbia, she did considerable research on the interaction between immigration laws, the experiences of foreign domestic workers in Canada, and gender equality.  Following receipt of her B.A., Jennifer obtained an LL.B. from the University of British Columbia.  She subsequently received a Master of Laws, with a specialty in Alternative Dispute Resolution, from Osgoode Hall Law School at York University. 

In the LL.M. program at Osgoode Hall Law School, Jennifer conducted a survey of practicing mediators and, using this original research, as well as existing research, produced a thesis which analyzed the sources of power mediators possess, and how they are used.  The results of her thesis research were published in an article in the Canadian Arbitration and Mediation Journal.  She has also co-authored numerous legal papers, several of which have formed part of the curriculum at continuing legal education courses put on by The Law Society of Ontario, The Advocates’ Society, and Osgoode Professional Development.

Jennifer is a member of the Bar in British Columbia and Ontario, and has practiced law in both provinces.  She has spent the bulk of her legal career practicing family law.  And, it was her experiences in this practice, that fueled her interest in children’s mental health issues, and prompted her to return to academia in Fall 2017.

LL.M., University of Toronto
LL.M., York University
LL.B., University of British Columbia
B.A., University of British Columbia
Awards and Distinctions
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Doctoral Fellowship (2020 – 2023)
Law Foundation of British Columbia, Law Foundation Graduate Fellowship (2019 – 2020)
Law Foundation of British Columbia, Law Foundation Graduate Fellowship (2018 – 2019)
Ontario Graduate Scholarship, University of Toronto (2018 – 2019)
Faculty of Law Fellowship, University of Toronto (2018 – 2021)
Law Foundation of British Columbia, Law Foundation Graduate Fellowship (2017 – 2018)
Ontario Graduate Scholarship, University of Toronto (2017 – 2018)
Professional Affiliations
Law Society of Ontario
Law Society of British Columbia
Selected Publications

Jennifer Bergman, "Intersectionality: A Means for Addressing the Needs of Children with Mental Health Issues who are Engaged with the Family Law and Criminal Justice Systems?" (2019) 36 Windsor YB Access Just 115.

Jennifer Bergman, “Mediators’ Power: A Study of Mediators’ Views about the Sources of Power They Possess and Use” (2011) 20:2 Canadian Arbitration and Mediation Journal 50.

Julie Hannaford and Jennifer Bergman, with assistance by Charu Ruparelia, “The Spousal Support Claim in the High Income Universe” (Paper presented to Osgoode Professional Development’s education program, 3rd Annual Recent Developments and Complex Issues in Child and Spousal Support, held October 7th, 2013).

Julie Hannaford and Jennifer Bergman, “General Rules for Conducting Family Law Motions” (Prepared for The Advocates’ Society’s education program, Conduct of the Family Law Motion, held April 3, 2013).

Julie Hannaford and Jennifer Bergman, “Motions for Disclosure from Non-Parties” (Prepared for The Law Society of Upper Canada’s education program, Property Issues in Family Law – Part 2, held March 20, 2013).

Research Interests
Criminal Law 
Family Law
Feminist Analysis of Law
Health Law
Committee Members
Ellen Berrey, Department of Sociology, University of Toronto

Prof. Karen Knop awarded British Academy Visiting Fellowship for "Peace Cases and Peace Camps" project

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

Prof. Karen Knop has been awarded a British Academy Visiting Fellowship. She will be at the Centre for Women, Peace & Security at the London School of Economics and Political Science in the autumn of 2018.

Her project is "Peace Cases and Peace Camps: A Study in Feminist International Law and Foreign Affairs Law." Here is the abstract:

John Enman-Beech

SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Contract Life
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

My research explores the applications of critical feminist legal and economic theory to contract law, seeking pragmatic openings for applied theory within the bounds of liberal private law discourse. My thesis critiques the role of contract law in the everyday—employment, consumer, and user law—a set of phenomena I term contract life. See my SSRN page for publications from the Dalhousie Law Journal, the Canadian Journal of Law and Society, the Supreme Court Law Review, the Canadian Business Law Journal, the Journal of Commonwealth Law, and the Journal of Law and Equality. I also am, or have been, a graduate fellow at the Schwartz Reisman Institute for Technology and Society, doctoral fellow at the Centre for Ethics, SSHRC doctoral fellow, Ontario Graduate Scholar, SSHRC Canada Graduate Master's Scholar, and recipient of the NSERC undergraduate research award from back when I almost became a computational geophysicist.

Research Interests
Consumer Protection and Products Liability Law
Critical Legal Theory
Economic Analysis of Law
Family Law
Feminist Analysis of Law
Labour Law
Legal Process
Legal Theory
Political Philosophy and Theory
Sexuality and the Law
Committee Members

Daniel Del Gobbo

Daniel Del Gobbo
SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Negotiating Feminism: Campus Sexual Violence and the Politics of Settlement
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Daniel Del Gobbo is a Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) Candidate at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law, where he is attending with the support of a Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation Scholarship, CBA Viscount Bennett Fellowship, and SSHRC Doctoral Fellowship. His current research considers the use of alternative dispute resolution, restorative justice, and systems design processes in resolving gender-based conflicts, with a focus on the problem of campus sexual violence in Canada. One of his major papers in this area received the CLSA Roderick A. Macdonald Prize for the best essay written by a Canadian graduate student on a topic in law and society in 2019. Previously, Daniel earned a Master of Laws (LL.M.) at Harvard Law School.

Daniel taught two different courses as an Adjunct Professor at Osgoode Hall Law School from 2015 to 2019. He taught "Dispute Settlement," an advanced, upper-year seminar in ADR and dispute systems design in all four years, and he led a team of over 30 instructors as the Course Director of "Lawyer as Negotiator," an experiential learning course in representative negotiation from 2017 to 2019. Outside of these classes, Daniel has guest lectured extensively on the topics of civil procedure, equality law, access to justice, and gender and sexuality in Canada. He received the Osgoode Hall Law School Teaching Award for Adjunct Faculty in 2018 as well as the Osgoode Legal & Literary Society Faculty Equity Award in 2019.

Daniel's academic and advocacy work are committed to the public interest. He has advised organizations including the Women's Legal Education and Action Fund, Canadian Civil Liberties Association, International Committee of the Red Cross, and Status of Women Canada on projects related to restorative justice, sexual violence, humanitarian negotiation, women's rights, and LGBTQ2 equality around the world. His legal research and commentary has appeared in such major media outlets as The Globe and Mail, Policy Options, the Toronto Star, CBC Radio, the National Post, CP24, Lawyer's Daily, and The Conversation. Before entering academia, Daniel maintained a busy litigation practice in both the private and public sectors, working for two multinational law firms as well as one of the largest social housing providers in North America.

LL.M., Harvard Law School (2015)
J.D., Osgoode Hall Law School (2011)
B.A. (Hons.), Queen's University (2008)
Awards and Distinctions
Ontario Graduate Scholarship (2020-2021)
Thesis-Writing Scholarship, Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation (2020-2021)
Scholar, Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation (2017-2020)
Honourable Mention, CALT Scholarly Paper Award (2020)
CLSA Roderick A. Macdonald Graduate Student Essay Prize (2019)
Faculty Equity Award, Legal & Literary Society, Osgoode Hall Law School (2019)
Teaching Award for Adjunct Faculty, Osgoode Hall Law School (2018)
Hallam Award of Excellence, Mark S. Bonham Centre for Sexual Diversity Studies, University of Toronto (2018)
Viscount Bennett Fellowship, Canadian Bar Association (2016-2017)
Doctoral Fellowship, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (2016-2020)
Doctoral Fellowship, University of Toronto Faculty of Law (2016-2019)
Dean's Scholar, Sex Equality, Harvard Law School (2014-2015)
Dean's Scholar, Gender and Sexuality in Transnational Law, Harvard Law School (2014-2015)
Harvard University Associates in Canada Scholarship, Harvard Law School (2014-2015)
J.S.D. Tory Research and Writing Award, Osgoode Hall Law School (2011)
Dean's Key Award, Osgoode Hall Law School (2011)
Silver Medal, ABA International Negotiation Competition (2011)
McCarthy Tetrault Leadership Award, Osgoode Hall Law School (2010)
Scotiabank J.D. Entrance Scholarship, Osgoode Hall Law School (2008)
Professional Affiliations
Visiting Scholar, Center for Gender and Sexuality Law, Columbia Law School
Adjunct Faculty, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University
Member, Law Society of Ontario
Member, Canadian Bar Association
Member, Ontario Bar Association
Selected Publications

Journal Articles

"Bargaining with Emotions in Title IX Enforcement" (2021) ___ Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution ___ [invited, forthcoming]

"Feminism in Conversation: Campus Sexual Violence and the Politics of Settlement" (2020) 53(3) UBC Law Review ___ [forthcoming]

"Queer Dispute Resolution" (2019) 20(2) Cardozo Journal of Conflict Resolution 283

“The Feminist Negotiator’s Dilemma” (2018) 33(1) Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution 1 

“Unreliable Narration in Law and Fiction” (2017) 30(2) Canadian Journal of Law & Jurisprudence 311 

“Understanding the Anomalous: The Law of Civil Conspiracy” (2013) 42 Advocates’ Quarterly 143 [with Trevor Guy]

Chapters in Edited Collections

Ross et al. v. Her Majesty the Queen,” in Sonia Lawrence & Estair Van Wagner, eds, Canadian Feminist Judgments Project [with Toby Goldbach] (rewriting a decision of the Federal Court granting approval to a proposed settlement agreement in the class action arising from the historical sanctioning and discharging of LGBTQ2 peoples from the Canadian military and federal public service) [in progress]

"Queer Rights Talk: The Rhetoric of Equality Rights for LGBTQ+ Peoples" in Rebecca Cook, ed, Frontiers of Gender Equality (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2021) [forthcoming]

“The Return of the Sex Wars: Contesting Rights and Interests in Campus Sexual Violence Reform” in Diane Crocker, Joanne Minaker & Amanda Nelund, eds, Violence Interrupted: Confronting Sexual Violence on University Campuses (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2020) 

“Rex and Regina’s Children Can Do No Wrong? Reconsidering Crown Agent Immunity in Commercial Contexts” in Todd Archibald & Scott Echlin, eds, (2014) Annual Review of Civil Litigation 2014 (pp. 31-60) [with Sandra Barton and Ryan Teschner]

Book Reviews

Review of Norman Bacal, Breakdown: The Inside Story of the Rise and Fall of Heenan Blaikie (2017) 54(4) Osgoode Hall Law Journal 1359

Academic Blogs

Portia in the Same Voice? Law and Feminism in The Merchant of Venice (January 11, 2017) SexText: The SDS BlogMark S. Bonham Centre for Sexual Diversity Studies, University of Toronto


Trauma Must be Considered in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence (February 18, 2020)  Policy Options, Institute for Research on Public Policy

The Ontario Government's Shameful Snub of Affordable Housing (May 7, 2019) The Conversation (reprinted in the National Post)

“Restorative Justice for Survivors of Sexual Violence” (April 23, 2018) Policy Options, Institute for Research on Public Policy (with Vathsala Illesinghe)

“Words are Powerful, but LGBTQ2 Equality Requires More than a Trudeau Apology” (November 27, 2017) The Globe and Mail (with Brenda Cossman)

“Preventing Sexual Violence on Campus” (October 24, 2017) Policy Options, Institute for Research on Public Policy

“In Cases of Sexual Violence, Justice Can Come from Outside the Courts” (July 25, 2017) Toronto Star

“Hiding Behind ‘Locker Room Talk’ and the Canadian Legal System” (November 1, 2016) National Magazine, Canadian Bar Association

“Assessing Canada’s Legislative Responses to Campus Sexual Violence” (May 4, 2016) National Magazine, Canadian Bar Association

"Is the Supreme Court Headed Right?" (November 1, 2011) Huffington Post Canada

Research Interests
Administrative Law
Criminal Law 
Criminal Procedure and Evidence
Critical Legal Theory
Equality and Anti-Discrimination Law
Family Law
Feminist Analysis of Law
Law and Literature
Legal Ethics
Legal Process
Legal Theory
Reproductive and Sexual Health Law
Sexuality and the Law
Committee Members
The Hon. Lorne Sossin, Ontario Superior Court of Justice (formerly of Osgoode Hall Law School)

Mercedes Cavallo

SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
The legal construction of scales: a legal geography approach to childcare and the household in Buenos Aires City
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Mercedes researches the legal construction of spatial and temporal scales from a legal geography perspective. Particularly, how the different laws in the context of Buenos Aires, Argentina, unfold childcare in the private space and time of the household, shaping women’s inequality.

Mercedes received her LL.B. in 2007 (Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina), her LL.M. in Reproductive Rights in 2009 (University of Toronto, Canada), her Diploma in Women and Human Rights in 2011 (Universidad de Chile), and her Specialization in Criminal Law in 2016 (Universidad Torcuato Di Tella).

From 2014 to 2016, Mercedes was an Adjunct Professor. First in Universidad de Palermo, where she taught “Jurisprudence” and later in Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, where she taught "Introduction to Argentine Constitutional Law" and "Gender and the Criminal Law".

Her professional path includes being a court clerk at the Federal Supreme Court of Argentina,  the Director of the Socio-Economic Rights Program at Asociación por los Derechos Civiles (Argentina), and a Secretary of Court at the 4th National Court on Federal Criminal Law in Buenos Aires City (Argentina) before starting her SJD at the University of Toronto in 2016. 

University of Toronto, Canada - SJD candidate (2016-2019)
Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina - Specialization in Criminal Law (2014-2016)
Universidad de Chile, Chile - Diploma in Women and Human Rights (2011)
University of Toronto, Canada - LL.M. in Sexual and Reproductive Rights (2008-2009)
Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina - LL.B. (2002-2007)
Awards and Distinctions
P.E.O. International Peace Scholarship (2017-2018)
Delta Kappa Gamma World Fellowship (2017-2018)
University of Toronto, Faculty of Law Doctoral Fellowship (2016-2019)
University of Toronto, International Program on Human Rights Award (2009)
University of Toronto, Faculty of Law LL.M Scholarship (2008-2009)
Professional Affiliations
Member, Colegio Público de Abogados de la Capital Federal (Buenos Aires Bar Association). Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Fellow, International Reproductive and Sexual Health Law Program.University of Toronto. Toronto, Canada.
Affiliate, Centre on Law and Social Transformation. Bergen, Norway.
Member, Red Latinoamericana de Academicos/as del Derecho "Red Alas" (LatinAmerican Network of Legal Scholars).
Member, Amnistia Argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Research Interests
Critical Legal Theory
Family Law
Feminist Analysis of Law
Legal Theory
Sexuality and the Law
Committee Members
Mariana Valverde