Christopher Campbell-Duruflé
SJD Candidate
Thesis title:
Climate Norms in Practice: A State Accountability Analysis of the Paris Agreement
Office in Falconer Hall
84 Queen's Park
Toronto, M5S 2C5

Christopher Campbell-Duruflé is a doctoral candidate at the University of Toronto under the supervision of Professor Jutta Brunnée. His research interests include international climate law, international human rights law, the Inter-American system of human rights, Indigenous law, and sustainable development law and policy. 

Christopher's dissertation develops a theoretical framework of state accountability for international norms, and applies it to the implementation mechanisms negotiated in the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. He was officially accredited observer to the COP 21 United Nations climate negotiations on behalf of the University of Toronto and of the Center for International Sustainable Development Law, and has supported the delegation of Burkina Faso since COP 22. 

In 2013-2014, Christopher was fellow at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, in Washington, D.C., and in charge of the Registrar's criminal due process of law portfolio. He also participated in the hearings of the case of Nadège Dorzema et al. v. Dominican Republic before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights as lawyer for the International Clinic for the Defense of Human Rights based at Université du Québec à Montréal and interned with the Geneva office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Christopher has worked for Lawyers Without Borders Canada in Honduras, Jamaica, Guatemala and Colombia, where he founded “Caminos de compromiso” (Engaged Destinies). This web platform presents life story interviews with Colombian human rights defenders to honour their courage. His own story was included in the Human Rights Defenders Exhibit at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg. 

Portrait Photo Credit: Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation

LL.M. (summa cum laude), University of Notre Dame, 2014
B.C.L./LL.B., McGill University, 2009
Awards and Distinctions
Ontario Graduate Scholarship, 2020
Trudeau Scholar 2016, Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation
Joseph-Armand Bombardier Canada Graduate Scholarship, 2016
Doctoral Scholarship, Center for International Governance Innovation, 2015
Nathan Strauss Q.C. Graduate Fellowship in Intl. Law, University of Toronto, 2014
Global Justice Fellow, Munk School of Global Affairs, 2014
Junior Fellow, Massey College, 2014
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Fellowship, 2013
Professional Affiliations
Member, Legal Committee, Centre québécois de droit de l’environnement
Associate Fellow, Center for International Sustainable Development Law
Member, Lawyers Without Borders Canada
Lawyer, Quebec Bar, 2010
Other information
  • Academic Supervisor, Community Research Partnership in Ethics, Trinity College, University of Toronto
  • Technical Working Group Member, Initiative for Climate Action Transparency
  • Expert Reviewer, Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5C, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Selected Publications

Journal Articles

  • Enhancing Climate Adaptation through the Paris Agreement Market Approaches: Opportunities for COP 25 and Beyond, (2019) 13(3) Carbon & Climate Law Review 183.
  • Clouds or Sunshine in Katowice? Transparency in the Paris Agreement Rulebook” (2018) 12(3) Carbon & Climate Law Review 209.
  • The Inter-American Court’s Environment and Human Rights Advisory Opinion: Implications for International Climate Law (2018) 8 Climate Law 321 (with Sumudu Anopama Atapattu).
  • Accountability or Accounting? Elaboration of the Paris Agreement’s Implementation and Compliance Committee at COP 23 (2018) 8 Climate Law 1-38.
  • Sustainable Development, International Criminal Justice, and Treaty Implementation (Book Review) (2013) 26.2 Revue québécoise de droit international 261.
  • Introduction to the Special Volume on the Case of the Guayubín Massacre, with Bernard Duhaime, Revue québécoise de droit international, Special Edition co-directed with Professor Bernard Duhaime, November 2013.
  • The Right to Juridical Personality of Arbitrarily Detained and Unidentified Migrants After the Case of the Guayubín Massacre, Revue québécoise de droit international, Special Edition, November 2013.
  • La nécessité de prendre en compte les chevauchements des droits autochtones dans la conclusion de traités au Canada [The Need to Consider Aboriginal Rights Overlap During Treaty-Making in Canada] (2012) 71 Revue du Barreau du Québec 1. 
  • Le Canada et la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones : Valeur et pertinence, [Canada and the UNDRIP : Content and Relevance], with Gentelet K. and Farget D. (2010) 23(1) Nouvelles pratiques sociales 130.
  • Only if “je est un autre” Can I Recognise You: Reflections on Canada’s Process of Constitutional Recognition of the “Pre-existence of Distinctive Aboriginal Societies” (2010) 14(3) Lex Electronica 1.
  • El derecho indígena a la propiedad como ocasión de reafirmar la indivisibilidad de los derechos humanos [The Aboriginal Right to Property, an Occasion to Reaffirm Human Rights Indivisibility] (2009) 5 Revista CEJIL 65. 


  • The Significant Transboundary Harm Prevention Rule and Climate Change: One-Size-Fits-All or One Size Fits None?, in Benoît Mayer & Alexander Zahar, eds, Debating Climate Law, Cambridge University Press. (forthcoming)
  • All On the Same Train: Bringing the Paris Agreement Home, in Catriona Sandilands, ed, Rising Tides: Reflections for Climate Changing Times, Caitlin Press, Halfmoon Bay, 2019.
  • L’approche interactionnelle du droit international, in Stéphane Bernatchez & Louise Lalonde, eds, Approches et fondements du droit, Éditions Yvon Blais, Cowansville, 2019. (with Hélène Mayrand)

Briefs and Working Papers

  • Sustainable Development Methodology: Assessing the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Policies and Actions, D. Rich, R. Song & K.H. Olsen, eds, Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute; Copenhagen: UNEP DTU Partnership, 2020. (Drafting team member)
  • Sustainable Development Guidance - Guidance for Assessing the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Policies and Actions, Initiative for Climate Action Transparency, 2018. (Contributing author)
  • Commitments by Developing Country Parties under the Paris Agreement, Legal Response Initiative, Briefing Paper 2/2016. (with Pascale Bird) 
  • Towards a New Climate Agreement – Principles and Practices for Implementation from a Sustainable Development Perspective, Center for International Sustainable Development Law, 2015. (Contributing author)
  • Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and Climate Change: A Legal Reference Guide, edited by Sébastien Jodoin & Katherine Lofts, New Haven, Ct.: GEM, CISDL, and ASAP, 2013. (Contributing author)
Research Interests
Aboriginal Law
Environmental Law
International Law
Legal Theory
Committee Members
Steven Bernstein, Department of Political Science
Stephen J. Toope (2015-2017)