Instructor(s): Denise Réaume

For graduate students, the course number is LAW7060HF.

Note: The Blackboard program will be used for this course. Students must self-enrol in Blackboard as soon as confirmed in the course in order to obtain course information.

This course will canvas key developments in discrimination law jurisprudence, focusing mainly on the Ontario Human Rights Code, the Canadian Human Rights Act, and the BC Human Rights Code. The Codes prohibit discrimination on various enumerated grounds in a variety of settings.

We will canvass:
• the development of human rights legislation,
• what constitutes a prima facie case of discrimination,
• the spheres within which discrimination is prohibited by the Code
• the prohibited grounds and their role in defining discrimination,
• the defences of bona fide occupational requirement and reasonable accommodation/undue hardship,
• exceptions to the right not to be discriminated against, and
• the remedies available under the Codes.

After a brief survey of the doctrinal structure of the Human Rights Codes and case law, the seminar will focus on a range of key issues that are either illustrative of the fundamental principles of discrimination law or have attracted recent controversy and discussion.

Will be based on either three short writing assignments (total: approximately 6,000 to 7,000 words), or one research paper (approximately 7,500 words). The short assignments will cover the major issues covered in the course, and will likely be based on an in-depth analysis of one or more recent significant cases. Research paper topics should focus on an issue that pulls together a range of topics covered in the seminar; paper topics should be cleared with the instructor. Students undertaking a research paper may request to write a Supervised Upper Year Research Paper in this course. Participation in discussions will be expected, but will not form part of the evaluation. This course qualifies as a Perspective Course.

At a Glance

First Term
Perspective course


22 JD
2 MPP students


T: 4:10 - 5:25
Th: 4:10 - 5:25